Approaches of human development
An understanding of the nature and principle of growth and development is very essential for the realization of the aim of education. Either the maximum growth and development of personality physical and motor development , Cognitive, Emotional, Social development of the child. He can do it only if he has a thorough knowledge of growth and development at various stages
Meaning of Growth:-
Growth term is used in a purely physical sense. It generally refers to an increasing Size, length, height, and weight. Growth is one of the parts of the development process. Growth is not a continuous process it starts with conception but end at some particular age>it refers to changes in structure or physics only.
It is Growth is always observable and measurable.[…]
– Development refers to-structure form or shape and improvement in functioning.
– it is a progressive series of changes in an orderly coherent pattern.
– “Progressive” signifies that the changes are direction leading forward rather than backward.
– This change includes changes in preparation, this appearance of old features, and acquisition of new features of physical, intellectual, emotional, and social level of deals learning.
Maturation means ” When certain functions are performed by mind and body automatically. We say that one has attained maturity”
(D) Difference between Growth and Development:-
Principle of Growth and Development
9-Maturation and Learning
10-Cumulation and Recapitulation
(1) Principle of Unifrom development pattern: In human beings, the process of growth & development following a definite. All the development directions and sequence are all most the same for all children. but each follows his own time schedule of growth.
(2) Principle of Development Speed Variation: It is observed that the growth & development become very rapid in infancy or early year of life and later that speed decrease (rapid from to 2year and 11-15 years)
(3) Principle of Development Direction: The growth & development has got its own direction. It follows cephalocandal sequence, which means that the human being grow from the head downwards. First of body & legs occur. The child first attempts to move his head and then try to sit, walk or run . This principle is based on the physical development of human beings.
(4) The principle of proximodistal sequence: It means that the development takes place from center to periphery gradlients. The spinal cord of the child development first and the outward development of heart and chest etc.
(5) The principle of continuity: The process of growth and development continues from birth to death in some or the form. The rate of development process may not be even but it never stops until the mental & physical trails reach their maximum in the individual.
(6) The principle of general to specific development: Development proceeds from general to specific example the child learns first general concepts and then make depth or specific studies. First, the child learns to control his full hand and later he try to control the movement of the fingers on his hands.
(7) The principle of total development: The development term does not means only physical development, but include mental, social, emotional & cultural etc. All these type of development are interrelated & interdependent. it is an unifying process of all types of growth & development.
(8) The principle of cumulation & recapitulation: The development is always cumulative and recapitulatory it is the sum total number of events & experiences of child and is not based on singal events or change. Development is called recapitulatory because the charactaristics of on stage can be established in other stages. Example, self love of earlier year may also be observed in the adolescent year.
(9) The principle of prediction: The principle convays us that growth and development is predictable. We can predict something regarding the mental, social, or emotional development of the persons by studying the rate of their development in previous years.
Stages of Growth and Development
1- Infancy (0 to 2 year)
2- Childhood (2 to 12 year)
3- Adolescence (12 to 21)
Development characteristics of the stage;
The major development of this stage of infancy are given below.
(i) Physical Development
The first three year of the life of a child are marked by rapid, physical development. The size and weight of the child increase quite rapidly.
– It follow the lows cephalo caudal and proximodistal sequence.
– Infant begeing throwing at 6 months. He can through a ball by one year. Play catches by 2 years & has considerable skill by 6 years.
(ii) Language Development
– In the infancy stage child can only giggle and cry and expression of pleasure & pain.
– He can letter only a few word mam & papa.
– During this stage child to give expression on to this basic needs.
– Language development effected by the socio-economic environment.
– The rapid increase in vocabulary & the child can express his through and emotion in simple sentence.
– According to smite at the age of 8 month he learn no word.
(iii) Intellectual Development
– During this period they learn rudiments of reading and writing through play activities.
– In this stage, pre-school education has assumed great importance in the eyes of modern psychologists.
– During the stage instincts of curiosity, construction & play can be very useful. Exploited for the acquisition of knowledge.
(iv) Emotional Development
– Emotional refers to distinct emotional expres like as pain, pleasure, fear, anger, affection, etc.
– At this stage the emotions begin to be organized into sentiment.
– The emotional attraction gets stronger at this stage.
(v) Social Development
– Home is the primary social environment and the mother is the first teacher of the child.
– He gets the first lesson in social behavior & manner.
– He learns how to behave and converse with another member of the family.
– Then to social contact with neighborhood & friends circle.
Development characteristics of this stage
This period between 5 year to 12 year may be designated as the period of childhood. This stage is marked by rapid development in physical & mental spheres.
(i) Physical development
– This is the period of steady physical growth.
– The height and weight increase.
– Improvement in motor development, skill and endurance.
– A child at this stage is physically restless therefore be must engage himself in one or other activity and keep himself of busy.
(ii) Mental Development
– In this stage of intellectual advancement.
– The child develops the power of observation reasoning & abstract thinking. Thus he accumulates a large amount of knowledge & information.
(iii) Social Development
– During this period there is further development of social traits like co-operation and team spirit
– He become member of a gang & some time become the leader of the gang.
– Intrested in various games & learn team sprite and co-operation
(iv) Moral & emotional development
– During this stage the emotions get stabilised and there is more of emotional stability.
– His conduct is mostly governed by the religious and moral training received at home and school.
– A very intelligent and careful guidance is required at this stage to bring about the right and moral conduct of the children during this stage.
Adolescence is that place of human development during which boys and girls move from childhood to adulthood mentally, emotionally, physically, and socially.
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