Introduction about Learning
Learning is an important phase of human life. It is a basic factor in education. It is growth in the adaptation of behaviour to a wide variety of situations and circumstances. Learning is a comprehensive term and includes varied activities and experiences which have an important influence on the behaviour of an individual.
Definition of Learning
Learning has been explained and defined in a number of ways. A few of the views regarding the nature of learning are given below. Skinner: “Learning is both acquisition and retention.”
Characteristics of Learning
1. Learning is progressive change in behaviour.
2. Learning is adjustment.
3. Learning is growth
4. Learning is organising experience.
5. Learning is continuous.
6. Learning is purposeful.
7. Learning is need based.
8. Learning is universal.
9. Learning is active.
10. Learning is intelligent and creative.
11. Learning affects the conduct of learners.
Principles of Learning
(1) Learning is a fundamental process of life.Without it, life can not exist and no progress can,take place.
(2) Learning affects all modes of behaviour, may be skills, knowledge, attitudes, personality, motivation, fear, mannerism etc.
(3) Learning is a continuous process. It starts from birth and continues till death.
(4) Learning is purposive or goal directed. It is not an aimless activity.
(5) Learning is change in response or behaviour, may be favourable or unfavorable.
(6) Learning generally involves some degree of permanence.
(7) Learning is caused partially.or wholly by experience or training.
(8) Learning is determined by conscious as well as unconscious experiences. It occurs intentionally or unintentionally on the part of the learner.
(9) Learning is process of change not a product in the form of changes behaviour.
(10)Learning takes place when an organism reacts in a situation.
(11)Learning is the result of individual’s activity.
(12)Learning is a creative experience.
(13)Learning is Universal. Both animals and’ human beings are subjected to learnig. Man learns more than the animals.
(14) Learning is total reaction of the individual to total-situation.
(15) Learning can be transferred. Material learned in one situation can be utilized in other similar situation also.
(16)Learning is process not a product. Attitudes, fears, gestur—s, motor skills, languages skills etc.
(17)Learning is motivated.
Type of Learning
Leaming takes place.on the cognitive, affective and conative planes. Thus, acquisition of knowledge is cognitive; modification of emotions is affective; and-acquisition of skills and habits is conative. In this way, learning can be of various types. Learning has been classified in various categories as learning of motor skills, verbal learning affective learning, and cognitive learning. It is very difficult to dichotomize learning into categories because one category overlaps the other. Gagne has classified learning into eight types in hierarchical order.
4.Verbal Associate Learning
6.Learning of Concepts
7.Learning of Principles
Human experience occur on three-level
knowing, feeling and willing or doing. Perception belongs to the knowing experience it is a cognitive process. It consists in our cognition or knowledge of objects. The objects are presented to Highlights us through the medium of sensations. Thus perception means “the knowledge of object which comes through sensations.” Sensation gives us sensory qualities of objects and it, is only through the perception that we have a cognition of objects. As the sensory qualities always exist in objects, and the “cognition of objects is called perception; it follows that perception involves sensation.
Definition of Perception
Perception is the way of getting to know objective facts by the use of senses.”
In the light of these definitions, perception can best be defined as a concrete, complete, cognitive process aroused by the stimulation of a sense organ. It gives us knowledge of things in the outside world which can be analyzed into a sensation or sensations, and ideas simultaneously associated with these sensations.
Sensation and perception in psychology
Perception, as differentiated from sensation, Which is a simple mental process,is a complex mental process. Perception is sensation combined with meaning derived from our past experience. Perception consists in the interpretation and localization of sensation. This leads us to conclude that sensations are the basis of perception.
- It is a complex mental process.
- Perception is always of objects.
- It is concerned with the interpretation and localisation of sensations, and referring them to definite objects.
- Perception is presentative as well as representative in nature. It does not entirely depend on the external stimulus but contributes from memory and imagination also.
- It is comparatively active. The meaning in perception is the result of the mind’s activity.
- It is simple mental process
- Sensation is always of qualities.
- It is concerned with the bare awareness of the sensible qualities of the object.
- Sensation is preventative in nature because it depends entirely on the external stimulus.
- It is comparatively, passive.
Development of perception
We can trace three distinct stages in the development of perception. These are given below”
Stage I-Stage of Pure Sensations:
The first stage in the development of perception is the stage of pure sensations. Here we have the pure perception which is-present the days of perception mental development. It is entirely made Sup of outside sensations. coming from the object of perception. For instance, the child’s-perception of orange is nothing mere than a more blending of a number of sensations. All the impressions that he receives come from the external object. Nothing is contributed by his mind. In order to know the taste, smell, smoothness and color of the orange, the child must actually taste, smell, touch and see it. It is preventative and hence the most primitive stage in the development of perception.
Stage 2-Stage of Assimilation
The perception at this stage does not entirely depend upon the sensations aroused by the external object. The mind here assimilate certain images of its own and supplements them with sensations received from the external object. The perception here is partly made up of outside sensations and partly of inside sensations. At this stage, it is not necessary that the child should actually taste and smell the orange in order to know its taste and smell. The image sight of the orange is sufficient to arouse the sensations of smell and taste.
Stage 3-Stage of Symbolic Perception
The third and the final stage is known as the symbolic stage At this stage perception consists merely of inside. sensations and includes not outside sensations at all With the development of language a mere word or idea or symbol of an object is sufficient to bring all its sensations into our consciousness. At this. stage the mere’ word ‘orange’ or its symbol- will be sufficient to arouse all the sensations of taste, sight, smell, touch, etc.
Transfer of Learning
(i)Transfer of learning is an important concept in life in general and in the field of teaching & learning, in particular.
(ii) The extent to which the learning of one thing helps in the learning of something else is usually called transfer of training.
(iii) Even are practical matters of daily life, the experience gained in one field helps in learning things in other fields.
(iv) If you know how to drive a Moped and control its speed and handle, you will experience less difficulty is learning to drive a scooter or motor cycle.
(v) In school situations, teachers teaching different subjects do believe in transfer. A mathematics teacher holds that one who can solve problems of geometry and algebra will be able to reason well.
Definition of Transfer Learning
The term transfer or transfer of training has been defined by experts. In the simple words, transfer of training means that learning or training in one field or fields is transferred to the other field or subject.
(i) Gutlrrie and Powers: “Transfer may be defined as a process of extending and applying behaviour.”
Type of transfer Learning
There are forms of Transfer of Training.
1. Positive Transfer.
2. Negative Transfer.
3. Zero Transfer.
4. Bilateral transfer
When learning in one situation facilitates learning in another situation, it is a case of positive transfer, Eg. Transfer of knowledge of mathematics to the field of physics, knowledge of driving a scooter to drive a car.
2. Negative Transfer:
When learning of one task makes the learning of another task harder, this is called negative Transfer.
3. Zero Transfer:
When learning of one activity neither facilitates nor retards the learning of a new task, it is a case of zero Transfer. Knowledge of music to airplane flying or knowledge of language ta mathematics.
4. Bilateral transfer:
The possibility of transfer of training from one hand to the other has been studied with reference to simple motor skills. It has been found that if we learn a motor activity, Practice with the right hand reduces the number of trials necessary for the left hand to acquire the skill. Such a transfer of training is called bilateral
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What is Teaching?
-Concept of teaching means how to teacher encouraged the students to change the way of thinking. -All teacher and expert knows that even the most effective curriculum and the foremost perfect syllabus remain dead unless quickened into life by the correct method of teaching and correct