Islamic education

Introduction of Islamic Education :-

The Mohammedan invasion of India in the 11th century was one of the most extraordinary events in world history, which was marked a great change, not only in the social and political life of the country but also in the sphere of education and learning. Education was not considered a social duty or state responsibility during the medieval period. It was merely a personal or family affair.

The Arabs and the Turks brought many new customs and institutions in India, of theas one remarkable event was the Islamic pattern of education, which in many respects vastly differed from the Brahmic and the Buddhist system. At the same time, muslime give emphasis on Persian language and they can introduce in the educational system as a language. In this time the demand of Hindi learning subsequently decreases an account of the attitude of the rulers and change in state religious and language.

Type of Educational Institution :-

During the Muslim rule, education was importing through moktabs, madrasah, mosques, monasteries, and private houses. But primarily Islamic education was developed mainly into two stages, one is moktab and another is madrasha.

(1) Moktab :-

Etymologically the term moktab is derived from the Arabic term “Kulum”, which means a place where writing is taught, During the Muslim rule moktabs were attached to mosques. Mosques were the center of prayer and worship of the mouslims, maktab were the center of primary education. Those children of ordinary muslim families used to oppertunity to receiving elementery education in the maktabs.

Like upanayana of Brahmanical education a special ceremony was organised to admission to maktabs called “Bismillah”. When a child attains 4 years 4 month and 4 day his admission ceremony was held in the maktab in the presence of his parents well wisher, the child was asked to utter Bismillah. After words script was taught through eye and ear then the children were taught to memorize the thirteen chapter of “kuran” and “fatiha”. “Khanghar” used to provide moral and spritual education. Darghas were tombs of celebrated faktirs. Theas institution used to provied technical education. During the medival period, primary education was 4 typs such :-

(a) Koranic School:
They were attached to mosques when the children understand Quaran was taught. They did not profess to teach, writting and arithmatic.

(b) Persian School:
The political works renowned writers of Islamic culture were taught here

(c) Persian Quaran:
In this schools, combined elements of quaranic and parsian school elements were taught.

(d) Arabic School:
Theas were meant for adult to enable team to obtain humility in the Arabic language and literature.

(2) Madrasha:-

In the medieval period, higher Islamic education was imparted in the madrasah. Madrasha was originated from “Dars” means place whwre lecture is given or lesson is taught. Special ceremony was not organised for the admission of madrasha. Such institutions were patronized by Muslim rulars. In addition to royal support, these institutions were receiving aids in cash and kind from Amirs and philanthropists.

There was provision for both secular and religious education in the madrash. Madrasha were run by the private organisation. But there was no specific policy. In madrasah, the total duration of the course was (10-12) years in all. The medium of instruction was persion. But study arabic was made compulsory for the muslim student. The seculor education included the subject like, Arobic grammer prose, poetry,logic philosophy, Agriculture etc.The muhammedans generally followed in the field of handcrafts and agriculture the traditional indian system.

Generally, madrasha was managed by local management . As they were not under the direct control of state. During the regen reason, some mogul rulars, the department of justice was entrusted to lookup educational institution.They profoundly patrioned higher education in order to generate an army of intellectuals and Hindus and Muslim were allowed to study. During the regin, Akbargive importance on hindu education. So they built up Hindu higher educational institution sprang up and secular out look in spear of education embraged as wel.

During the medieval period, important center of Islamic higher learning was establish of Lahore, Multan Delhi, Agar, Ajmir, Bihar, Allahabad, etc. Similarly Hindu center of higher education were functioning at Marwar, Ujjain, Dhar, Nadia, pondichere etc.

islamic education

State Patronge in Educational Endenvours :-

The muslim first appeared in india in the eight century, But the real storm of muslim agressive burst on indian under mahammod of ghazni. The muslim education in india favours some famous persion with out these person the muslim education can not be devlop education. So i discuss about some famous persion who are take a vital part in the state patronage in educational system.

(1) Mahmmod Ghazni:
Mahmmod Ghazni was the hero of muslim who started the foundation of muslim in india, he promoted the couse of education in his own native country with the booty obtained from india, but did not put any efforts for advancement of indian education.

(2) Mahammad Ghori :
Mahammad Ghori (1174 AD – 1206 AD ) who laid the foundation of muslim education in india.He destroyed some temple of ajmeer end to gave built in their place mosques and colleges.

(3) Ala-ud-din-khilji:
During the regain of all-ud-khilji, end received a tottering blow. He widrow state financial aid from educational institution. He was a great persion for development of muslim/ islamic education. By time delhi had become a great center of learning.

(4) Mahammad Tughaloy:
He was a man of great learning who had graet encourgment to help the scholars.His court sheetter many of poet philosopher, physician and logician. He was a great setback to delhi as a center of education and learning.

(5) Firoz Shah :
He built more then thirty colleges with mosques attached. In college which he founded at his capital students and professors all lived to gather in the institutions. Stipends and scholarships where given for their support. Firoz shah himself a great historian, he wrote his autobiography named ” fatuhat-i- firoz shah “. he had a big library with precious books thus owing to his personal liking for education, Muslim education politics religious and literature made remarkable progress during his tenure.

(6) Sikander Lodi :
By Sikander Lodi, Agra which had been made the capital bi his prodecessor, came into prominence as a literary center.In this time inter cours between the Muslim and the Hindu led to the formation of a new language, which came to be called as urdhu. In this time education was also encouraged and many colleges buit in Bijapur, Golkunda, malwa, Jaipur, Multan, Gujrat etc.

(7) Akbar:
Akbar (1556A.D – 1605 A.D) was the most brilliant person in the Islamic period. He was a patron not only of muslim learning but also of religious matter and made arrangement for Hindu youth to be educated at the madrasha along with the Muslims. Art, Literature, Philosophy was progressed in his period. He wanted to bring about reformation in the traditional system of education.

(8) Jahangir :
Jahangir son of akbar was a lover of book and was great patron of the art and painting. He repaired some colleges.

(9) Saha Jahan and his son:
Saha Jahan patronized music, painting, sculpture, etc. But he did not making remarkable attempts in the direction.of the promotion and expansion of education. His son dara shikoh was an erudite scholor and well vased in hindu philosophy. He translated many Sanskrit works into person among others the Upanishads.

(10) Aurangzeb (1658 A.D – 1707 A.D):
He was a strict and orthodox Muslim and was in favour of muslim education. He had demolished many hindu temple and educational institutional ana make mosques, moktab and madrashas. Aurongzab was a learned scholar of turkish. Arabic and persion knowledge the Quarran was of tip of his tongue. By amending the curriculum , he made education more suitable to the practical aspects of life.

islamic education
Silent Features of Islamic Education:-

(1) Education for the development of Islamic :
Islamic education aimed at propagation and dissemination of islamic princples, lows and social convintions, among the learner . It aimed at the dissemination of Karnic knowledge and islamic theology among the student.

(2) Education for practical utility of life :
Islamic education was more concerned with practical benifit and utilitarian values preparation for lifes attainment of material gains through acquisition of knowledge livehood.

(3) Little provision for univarsity education :
There was very little provision for university education in muslim rule little arrengement was made in the sphere of university education in muslim ruls.

(4) Teacher taught relationship :
The teacher taught relationship in islamic education was close and co-odial but due to changing view points towards education the ideal relation between teacher and taught stated declining during the muslim period.

(5) Free Education :
Ordinarily tution fees were not charged from the students receiving education in maktab and madrasha. Inspite of the tution fees, the meritorious students use to get all shorts of assistance like fooding, study material etc. From the management of the institution .

(6) Strict Discipline:
Strict discipline was made in muslim education. Rigourous punishment was sure on miserent students.

(7) Military Education :
Islamic education laid emphasis on giving military traning to learners to become soldiers. Military education was compulsory for all.

(8) Women Education :
Paradha system was bound for muslims. But does not oppose to girls education. But during muslim period in indian education of girls receiving agreat set back perticularrly as secondary level. They were getting education up tp primary level and also families made their own arrangement for education on their girls at their residence.


By Biju Samal

Biju Samal, The Author, And Co-Founder Of Wide Education, "wide education" aims to be aware within a strong and positive framework and entertain the world, Hear providing quality content and also entertain You.

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