Motivation and learning theory
Motivation and learning are potent factors in learning. According to Gates, they serve three functions.
(i) Motives energize behaviour:
They release energy and make the learner active. They encourage the learners to function in a particular direction.
(ii) Motives are selectors’ of behaviour:
Where the learner is motivated he is ready to respond to the given stimulus.
(iii) Motives direct behaviour:
Motives’ select as well as direct behaviour. They. direct the behaviour in such a manner that the individual gets a satisfying feeling.
Teacher’s Role is Important. It is a well-established fact that motivation is an important factor in learning especially in formal classroom learning. This gives a special place to the role of the teacher. The classroom teacher is the real human motivator. Once the class is motivated more than half the battle is won. It was Herbart who made motivation or “preparation” as the first essential step in successful classroom teaching.
Teacher role in Motivation:
(i) Give the child a learning experience which is well within his grasp
(ii) Present new material in light of what has already been learnt by the child. This will make things easy for the child to grasp.
(iii) Child’s first experience of the school is not pleasant although he is anxious; he is a little hesitant also. The teacher should be a warm and pleasant person.
(iv) He should secure the attention of the children by creating interest in the lesson. “Securing attention”.
(v) The interest in classroom learning, once created, should be maintained and sustained for quite a length of tint
(vi) The teacher should make every effort to create desirable attitudes for learning different school subjects. He should employ such means as will provide ad equal-motivation to children.
(vii) Need for achievement is an important characteristic child. So, teachers should give children challenging tasks to complete. They should encourage children to mal decisions and help them in setting goals which are areas within the pupils’ reach.
Methods Of Improving Motivation
Concrete steps which a teacher can adopt to motivate students:
(1) Child-centred Teaching:
Teaching should be children centred. Schools should be meant for children and not children for schools.
(2) Correlated Teaching:
Teaching should correlate with life. We should associate teaching with exciting personal and social events like Diwali, Ramzan, Christmas, etc.
(3) Definite Clear-cut Assignments:
There should be a definite and clear-cut assignment so that both teachers and pupils know what is done. This incidentally stresses the importance of a clear announcement of the aim of a lesson.
There is great curiosity and desire among pupils to understand themselves and the world around them. Therefore, novelty should be introduced both in matter and method.
(5) Learning by doing:
School curricula should make provision for learning by doing.
(6) Provide stimulating environments:
Like arranging excursions to a farm, a park, a factory, a zoo, a science fair etc.
(7) Teaching aids-like slides, filmstrips, films etc. should be used.
-Motivation is coming from the Latin word ‘Movere’ which indicates to move. In the literal sense, it is a process which-arouses the energy or drive in the individual to proceed in an activity.
-The activity arouses, fulfils the need and reduces the drive or tension. Until it has not fulfilled the need, the drive is not reduced.
-Motivation and Functions is the most important part of the learning process. Does motivation imply the arousal and maintenance of interest in learning and interest is a basic factor in learning?
-This means that motivation plays a vital role in learning. In fact, no real learning can take place without motivation
-Motivation and FunctionsÂ concentrates the attention and energy of a person on the activity or knowledge to be learnt.
-Motivation is both activator and director of behaviour. It is an inner condition of the organism that initiates and directs its behaviour towards a goal.
-Thus, Motivation and Functions are a tendency to seek a particular goal. Human behaviour is not just mechanical it is purposive and hence motivated. Even animal behaviour is motivated but animal behaviour is stimulated by biological drives, such as hunger, sex etc.
-Human behaviour is motivated by biological, as well as psychological and social motives.
Characteristics of motivated behaviour
I. Motives originate and energize behaviour
The behaviour originates because of motives and motivation. And not only this, motivation provides supplies the energy for accomplishing a task.
2. Motives sustain behaviour
In continuation with the above, one persists in one’s behaviour because of motivation-It is possible that without motivation, one may be tempted to leave the task unaccomplished or in midway. You persist in your efforts.
3. Motives direct behaviour
This is clear in an itself-which way to go motives will give direction.
4. Motivated behaviour is selective behaviour
You concentrate only on fewer things. Motivation does not let your attention wander. Motivated behaviour is always directed at a selective goal/ target that one selects.
Types Of Motivation
There are two types of motivation:
1. Natural Motivation (intrinsic or primary motivation)
2. Artificial motivation (extrinsic or secondary motivation)”
1. Natural Motivation
(Intrinsic or Primary Motivation)
(i) There are natural or intrinsic factors related to the individual that motivate the individual to act and achieve the goal. For example, various internal factors like physiological needs, emotional needs, social needs, ego, etc.
(ii) Become the cause of drives for motivating a person to achieve the desired goal. This motivation is internal and the individual gets motivated naturally to involve himself or herself in the responses or activities which are in line with his/ her natural needs/ drives/motives.
(iii) Teachers should use positive motivational technology and devices to involve students in various teaching-learning experiences so as to achieve desired instructional objectives.
2. Artificial Motivation
(External or Extrinsic Motivation)
The individual can be motivated by making use of external motivating factors like ideal, knowledge of result, reward, punishment, competition, cooperation, evaluation, audio-visual aids, good pupil-teacher relationship etc for devising technology and devices for motivating the learner in the teaching-learning experiences for achieving educational objectives.