– He was born on, 5 July 1902 and died on 12 May 1994. – He was a German-American developmental psychologist and psychoanalyst known for his theory on the psychological development of human beings. – He Educates at Vienna university. – Full name: Erik Salomonsen..
[ii] Psycho-Social development:-
– Psycho-social means having both psychological and social aspects. – Erikson was a stage theorist who took Freud’s controversial theory of psychosexual development and modified it as a psychosocial theory. – According to him, Human development and personality are categorized into 8 stages. These are called psychosocial stages. – He developed his eight stages of psychosocial development based on Freud’s psychosexual theory. – He believed that development in human beings is a continuous process.
[iii] Stage of Psycho-Social development:-
According to psychosocial theory, we experience eight stages of development over the lifespan, from in dance theory late a method. It’s every stage there is a crisis or task that we need to resolve. Successful completion of each development task results in a sense of competence and a healthy personality. Failure to master these tasks leads to feelings of inadequacy.
Stage- I- Trust Vs Mis-trust ( Birth to 18 months)
(i) Trust is positive
(i) Mis-trust is negative
(ii) The newly born infant wholly depends on his mother. She provides the satisfaction of physical needs.
(ii) If the physical needs are not satisfied, they develop a conflict of mistrust with their mother or caretaker.
(iii) They develop a positive attitude of their personality as trust towards their mother.
(iii) If mistrust is developed. They develop abnormal characteristics in the future life of his personality.
(iv) Hope is the basic Strength.
(iv) This stage will lead to a psychological crisis in their personality.
Stage-II Autonomy Vs Shame and guilt ( 18 months to 3 years )
Shame and guilt
(i) The child develops a kind of confidence in them as they grow that is physically and mentally strong. They become autonomic & have self-centered in themselves.
(i) If autonomy kind of confidence is not developed then feel shame and guilt about themself in manipulating things.
(ii) Will is developed in this stage.
(ii) They doubt themselves and feel inferior about themself.
Stage- III Initiative vs Guilt ( 3 years to 6 years)
(i) Purpose is the basic strength development.
(i) If they don`t develop the basic strength, they will feel guilty.
(ii) The child wants to produce something new. Develops a kind of initiative. They will be more competitive and creative.
(ii) The parents & teacher should provide proper opportunity to the children to develop a positive attitude and keep away from quality and make them successful in their personality.
Stage- IV Industry Vs Inferiority ( 6 years to 12 years)
The basic strength that develops in this stage is competency.
If the child is not competent enough and is not hardworking then they develop an inferiority complex among others.
The children come forward to accept challenges & to do hard work.
Stage-V Identity Vs Role confusion ( 12 years to 19 years)
Fidelity is the basic strength developed in this stage.
If the children are not identified by their parents, teachers, peer group, etc. then the child develops role confusion and thinks that they are not important and their role is not important in their family & school.
They are to be identified in their peer group.
They feel superior when they are identified by their parents & teachers.
Stage- VI Intimacy Vs Isolation ( 19 years to 30 years)
Love is a basic strength developed in this stage.
If intimacy is not developed then they are in isolation.
Their thinking becomes clear.
They get discarded or separated from their parents & relatives.
They develop intimacy in the relationship with their loved ones.
Stage- VII Generativity Vs Stagnation ( 30 years to 64 years )
The basic strength developed is care.
If they are not innovative creative then they develop stagnation.
The individual at this stage is more productive and creative.
They want to create or generate something new.
Stage- VIII Integration Vs Dispair ( 64 years to onward )
Wisdom is the basic strength developed in this stage.
If the integration of various stages of the personality traits is not possible then, the result is in dispair.
All the positive personalities of a child from stage-i to stage-iii are integrated.
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