The skill of Introducing the Lesson
(I)Meaning of the skill:
- Through this skill, the lesson is introduced to students.
- Their previous knowledge is linked to their present knowledge in such a manner that no zero is left between them.
- All the introductory questions are asked in a sequence and the last one is directly linked to the topic at hand.
(II) Component of the skill:
- Utilization of previous experience: The new learning is to be based on the previous learning, knowledge, and experiences of the child.
- Knowledge of the subject acquired by the pupil in the previous classes.
- The general awareness of the pupil with their physical and social environment.
- Techniques of establishing links between the previous and new knowledge.
- Use of Appropriate device: A Teacher should essentially acquire the ability to use the appropriate device for introducing a lesson. The various device used for this purpose :
- Narration, description
- Using audio-visual aids
- Visit or excursion
- Maintenance of continuity: Proper introduction requires continuity in the ideas presented to pupils. There should be a logical sequence between the main parts of the introduction.
- Relevancy of verbal and non-verbal behaviour: A teacher should also try to observe relevancy in his verbal or non-verbal behaviour.
- Testing previous knowledge
- Utilization of these past experiences
- Establishing cognitive and affective rapport with the pupil
- Pin-pointing the aims of the lesion
Skill of Explaining
- Through this skill, the teacher explains what, why, how etc.
- The concepts of law and principles in such a manner that no doubt is left in the minds of the learners.
- Explaining is an activity which shows the relationship among various concepts, ideas, events and phenomena.
The skill of Introducing the Lesson express the various factors
Factor affecting explanations:
While giving explanations to pupils the explainer should keep in mind the age level, their previous knowledge, experiences, their family background and geographical situation etc.
The teacher broadly divided the skill of explaining into two parts:
Desirable Teacher Behaviour :
- Use of introducing Statements: These statements are used to make the listener alert. The purpose of this statement is to create mental readiness in the class and give clues for the explanation.
- Use of Concluding Statements: Some statements are made towards the end to conclude the explanation. The purpose of this statement is to give the pupil a consolidated picture of what he has explained for ready reference.
- Use of Explaining Links: These are certain links which connect the statements. The purpose of links is to tell the listener that the explanation is in progress.
Some Explaining Links:
On the other hand, therefore, hence, before, The main, why, because, purpose, thus, this is how
- Use of visual techniques: The use of blackboards, charts and other visual materials is helpful in making explanations clear.
- Technical words defined: Sometimes when a teacher explains a particular phenomenon, use of some technical and difficult words which if not defined would make the explanation beyond the comprehension of a listener.
- Interesting to pupils: for an effective understanding of the explanation by the pupils, it’s essential to make it interesting. This can be achieved by taking examples from the daily experiences of the pupil and using simple sentences.
- Covering essential points: The complete explanations should cover all the concepts and an explanation is determined by the scope of the concepts or organisation as specified in the instructional objective.
- Question to test pupil understanding: The effectiveness of the explanation can be judged by testing pupils’ understanding of the phenomenon. The teacher asks the question at the concluding stage, to get feedback as to how far he has been able to explain correctly.
Undesirable Teacher Behaviour:
- Irrelevant Statements
- Lack of continuity
- Lack of fluency
- Vague words or phrases.
The skill of stimulus Variation
- Here teacher changes the actions of all his body parts in a regular manner in order to save the students from boredom.
- For Example, he does not stand in the class at the same place for a longer period.
- He changes his position with the change of stimuli.
- He can use even his eyes to give them certain directions or to approve or disapprove of their efforts.
- Teacher Movements: The Movement of the teacher helps pupils to change their postures. The teacher’s movements should be.
ii- Meaning Full
iii- Helpful to the students as they attend to the given assignment.
The teacher moves from one place to another during the course of the lesson like moving towards the blackboard or moving towards the pupil purposefully.
- Teacher Gesture: Gestures are movements of the parts of the body to direct attention, express emotion, emphasize the importance, indicate shape, size and movements etc. Gestures are —
i. Hand and Head Movements.
ii. Eye Movements.
iii. Facial Expression
3. Change In Speech Pattern: The change in the speech pattern makes the pupil attentive and the lesson more interesting. Teachers should be able to change this speech pattern at proper points and in appropriate situations. Changes in the speech pattern occur due to
4. Change in Sensory Focus: It refers to changes in the sense channel that pupils used. Ex-From listening to looking, from speaking to doing, from reading to writing, from talking to blackboard writing etc. Are various changes of sensory focus. These are known as oral-visual switching. These devices are used to maintain the level of attention and motivation.
5. Change in Interaction Styles: In the classroom situation, three styles of interaction are possible. These are –
a- Teacher class Interaction: The teacher Communicates with the whole class and the whole of the class responds.
b- Teacher-Pupil Interaction: This type of interaction occurs when communication is directed towards particular pupils who are supposed to respond.
c- Pupil Pupil Interaction: When the discussion takes place among pupils in the absence of teacher participation, the interaction is known as pupil interaction.
6. Focusing: It refers to directing pupil attention to a particular point that they are required to observe. The focus can be obtained, either through verbal behaviour or using gestures or both.
7. Pausing: It refers to a brief period of deliberate silence during teacher talk. The purposes of a pause are-
a- To secure the attention of the pupils.
b- To give time for structuring an answer to teacher questions.
c- To give time for the assimilation of ideas and concepts.
8- Pupil Movements: This refers to pupil physical participation asked for or intended by the teacher. Ex- Handling apparatus and dramatization. Pupil movements give a pupil the chance to break the monotone and increase interest in the lesson.
9- Audio Visual Switching: Usually this occurs when the teacher follows lecture methods. During the explanation, if the teacher shows a teaching aid there is a switch from listening to visual and vice-versa.
The skill of pupils’ participation
- Pupil participation means the direct behaviour of pupils that can be observed in the class.
- The teacher initiates his activities in the class in such a manner that the pupil’s activities are automatically increased.
- For Example, he smiles at the right reaction of his pupil, he gets extremely pleased if his pupils perform a job in the right manner and so on.
Factors Affecting the Active Pupil Participation:
- Physical condition, like the size of the classroom, the situation of the classroom, and seating arrangements.
- Students themselves, have the capacity to express their knowledge about the subject and their willingness to participate in the classroom.
- Level of difficulty of the content itself.
SKILL OF REINFORCEMENT
1. Positive verbal reinforcement: It involves giving verbal expressions which act as reinforces ex- Saying “good”, “right”, “correct”, “fine”, or “yes”, after the pupil has responded. Sometimes words and phrases like “go on”, “carry on”, “go ahead” etc. It also, acts as reinforcement.
2. Positive non-verbal reinforcement: When a teacher uses gestures to reinforce the student’s responses it’s known as positive non-verbal reinforcement. Ex-
a- Nods and Smiles
b- Moving towards the responding pupil
c- Giving a friendly look and writing pupil responses on the blackboard.
3. Negative Verbal Reinforcement: The negative type of reinforcement is the decrease in the level of motivation and interest. Words like “wrong”, “no”, “incorrect”, “nonsense”, “not true”, ”foolish” etc. These are examples of negative verbal reinforcement.
4. Negative non-verbal reinforcement: This type of reinforcement can be given to students’ consciousness of certain undesirable behaviour. This can be done through such behaviour as “frowning”, “widening of eyes”, “nodding the head”, avoiding the particular pupil and moving away from his.
5. Extra verbal cues: Sometimes the teacher uses “utterances”, “aha”, “hmm” etc. To encourage the pupil to continue with his answer. These cues are given when the pupil’s response is lengthy.
6. Repeating and Rephrasing pupil response: The teacher repeats the correct response of the pupil and rephrases it for the benefit of another pupil in the class. Such behaviours have a reinforcing effect on the pupils but the teachers repeat only those answers by the pupil which are novel.
7. Writing pupil’s responses on the blackboard: The teacher may at times write correct and original pupil responses on the blackboard to give reinforcement to the pupils.
Some Cautions Regarding The Use of The Skill
1. Too Frequent use of reinforcement should be avoided.
2. Only a few correct and novel responses should be reinforced.
3. It should be given immediately after pupil responses.
4. It may be personalized by calling pupils’ names to increase its effectiveness.
What is Skill of pupil participation ?
Pupil’s participation means that direct behavior of pupils that can be observed in the class.
Teacher initiates his activities in the class in such a manner that pupil’s activities are automatically increased.
For Example, he smile at the right reaction of his pupil, he gets extremely pleased if his pupils perform a job in a right manner and so on.
What are the Skill of stimulus Variation ?
Here teacher changes the actions of all his body parts in a regular manner in order to save the students from boredom. For Example, he does not stand in the class at the same place for a longer period.
He changes his position with the change of stimuli. He can use even his eyes to give them certain directions or to approved or disapprove their efforts.
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