What is Operating System? :

– It is system software that works as an interface between a user and the computer hardware.
– The primary objective of an operating system is to make a computer system convenient to use and to utilize computer hardware in an efficient manner.
– The operating system performs the basic tasks such as receiving input from the keyboard, processing instructions, and sending output to
the screen.
– Operating system also talks to other computers or devices on a network.
– Examples: UNIX, MS-DOS, MSWindows – 98/XP/Vista, Windows-NT/2000, OS/2, and Mac OS.

operating systems
operating system

Functions of the operating system:

Operating System means that Resource Manager, that manage all the Resources that are attached to the System, like Memory, Processor, Input/Output Devices.

Different types of Operating system:

– In older days the OS mainly divided into two types they are:
1. Character User Interface (CUI)
Examples: DOS
2. Graphical User Interface (GUI)
Example: Window

 There are different types of OS are available in present days organized by their Working.

1. Serial Processing:
– In Serial Processing operating system that uses FIFO (First in First Out) technique for processing the process.

2. Batch Processing:
– In batch processing, a similar type of jobs prepared and processed.

3. Multi-Programming:
– In Multi programming Operating System Multiple Programs are executed on the System at a Time.

4. Real-Time System:
– Real-Time System are used their requires higher and Timely 0Response.

5. Distributed Operating System:
– In this Operating system Data is Stored and Processed on Multiple Locations.

6. Multiprocessing:
– In This type of operating system there is two or More CPU in a Single OS.

7. Parallel operating systems:
– It manage parallely all running resources of the computer system.

8. Single- and multi-tasking:
– A single-tasking system allows only one program at one time whereas a multi-tasking operating system can operate more than one program.

9. Single- and multi-user:
– It allows several programs to operate.
– A multi-user operating system used the basic theory of multi-tasking with good services which identify procedures and resources, such as disk space which is working with multiple users, and the system allows several users to interact with the system at the same time.

10. Time-sharing:
– In this system, also allows multiple users for distribution of processor time, mass storage, printing, and other resources.

11. Distributed:
– A distributed operating system controls a collection of separate computers and makes them seem to be a single computer.
– The growth of networked computers can be connected and converse with each other to give rise to distributed computing.
– Distributed computations supported more than one machine.
– When a computer works in teamwork, they form a distributed system.

12. Embedded :
– These Operating Systems are manufactured which can be used in embedded computer systems.
– They are made to run on small machines such as PDAs with less independence.
– They are capable to run with a restricted number of resources.
– They are very compact and tremendously efficient by design such as Windows CE and Minx 3 are embedded operating systems.

13. Library :
– It is an operating system in which the service offers, such as networking, are provided in the form of libraries and collected with the
application and configuration code to make a unikernel.
– Unikernel is a particular, single address space, machine image which can be installed in the cloud or embedded environments.

Characteristics of Operating System:

1. Memory Management:
– Keeps track of the primary memory, i.e. what part of it is in use by whom, what part is not in use, etc., and allocates the memory when a process or program requests it.

oprating system memory
operating system memory

2. Processor Management:
– Allocates the processor (CPU) to a process and de allocates the processor when it is no longer required.

3. Device Management:
– Keeps track of all the devices.
– This is also called the I/O controller that decides which process gets the device, when, and for how much time.

4. File Management:
– Allocates and de-allocates the resources and decides who gets the resources.

5. Security:
– Prevents unauthorized access to programs and data by means of passwords and other similar techniques.

6. Job Accounting:
– Keeps track of time and resources used by various jobs and/or users.

7. Control over System Performance:
– Records delays between the request for a service and from the system.

8. Interaction with the Operators:
– Interaction may take place via the console of the computer in the form of instructions.
– The Operating System acknowledges the same, does the corresponding action and informs the operation by a display screen.

9. Error-detecting Aids:
– Production of error messages, and other debugging and error-detecting methods.

10. Coordination between Other Software and Users:
– Coordination and assignment of compilers, interpreters, assemblers, and other software to the various users of the computer systems.


MS-DOS is a computer operating system by Microsoft Corporation.
It stands for “Microsoft Disk Operating System”, and came from an operating system Microsoft bought called 86-DOS, originally called QDOS, or “Quick and Dirty Operating System.”
MS-DOS originally written by Tim Paterson and introduced by Microsoft in August 1981 and was last updated in 1994 when MS-DOS 6.22 was released.
MS-DOS allows the user to navigate, open, and otherwise manipulate files on their computer from a command line instead of a GUI like Windows.
It was popularly used in PCs before a GUI operating system called Microsoft Windows came out, and still is used in some places today.
The Dos commands are divided into two types they are:
i. Internal Commands.
ii. External Commands.

Windows Operating system:

The windows operating system is developed by Microsoft Company in 1985 to operate desktop computers.
The main objective of developing the windows operating system to providing a graphical user interface to the user.
The first version of Windows, released in 1985, was simply a GUI offered as an extension of Microsoft’s existing disk operating system, or MS-DOS.
The 1995 consumer release Windows 95 fully integrated Windows and DOS and offered built-in Internet support, including the World Wide Web browser Internet Explorer
Microsoft also announced that Windows 10 would be the last version of Windows, meaning that users would receive regular updates to the OS but that no more largescale revisions would be done.

Mobile Apps for Teaching :

This category includes mobile apps that help users gain new skills and knowledge.
Through the help of a mobile app ( Google Duo, WhatsApp, Google meet, Skype, Zoom Cloud Meetings) nowadays teacher give distance education very easily
Many educational apps turn out to be popular among teachers too, who use them to organize their teaching process better or educate themselves further.

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By Biju Samal

Biju Samal, The Author, And Co-Founder Of Wide Education, "wide education" aims to be aware within a strong and positive framework and entertain the world, Hear providing quality content and also entertain You.

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